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Thursday, February 28, 2008

Computer runs slow after installing Norton Internet Security 2008

http://service1.symantec.com/SUPPORT/norton2008.nsf/0/c6bf4900312ef92565257348006bb9e7?OpenDocument&seg=hm&lg=en&ct=aa
Your computer runs slowly after installing Norton Internet Security 2008
STEP 1
Print this page


We suggest that you print this page before you start. PRINT

STEP 2
Check that the computer meets basic system requirements


Windows XP Home Edition/Professional/Media Center Edition

  • 300 MHz or faster processor
  • 256 MB of RAM
  • 350 MB of available hard disk space
  • DVD or CD-ROM drive required for all installations

Windows Vista™ Home/Home Premium/Ultimate/Business/Starter Edition

  • 1 GHz or higher processor
  • 512 MB RAM
  • 350 MB of available hard disk space
  • DVD or CD-ROM drive required for all installations

STEP 3
Run Disk Defragmenter


1
Do one of the following depending on your operating system:
  • For Windows Vista: Click the Start button, and then click Computer.
  • For Windows XP: Click Start > My Computer.
2
Right-click Local Disk (C:) and then click Properties.
3
On the Tools tab, click Defragment Now.
4
In the Disk Defragmenter window, click Defragment now or Defragment.
STEP 4
Run Disk Cleanup


1
Do one of the following depending on your operating system:
  • For Windows Vista: Click the Start button, and then click Computer.
  • For Windows XP: Click Start > My Computer.
2
Right-click Local Disk (C:) and then click Properties.
3
On the General tab, click Disk Cleanup.
Follow the on-screen instructions.
STEP 5
Configure Norton Internet Security to remove low-risk items


1
Start Norton Internet Security.
2
In the lower left corner of the window, click Options > Norton Internet Security.
3
In the left pane, click Exclusions, and then click Low Risk Action.
4
In the right pane, under "How to respond when a low security risk is found", click Automatically remove low-risk items.
5
Click Apply > OK.
STEP 6
Run LiveUpdate and then run a virus scan
1
Start your Norton product.
2
In the lower left corner of the window, click Run LiveUpdate.
3
Follow the on-screen prompts.
4
Run a scan of your computer.
If any threats are detected, you may be asked what you want to do, or Norton AntiVirus will do it for you automatically. Also, for most threats, you will see a link to information on the Security Response Web site. If you see a link, click it and follow the steps in the Removal Instructions section. If more than one threat is detected, more than one link may be displayed.

Vishing - When Phishers Get Vocal



s Internet users learn not to divulge confidential information on websites, phishers move to new, uncharted territories. Their newest weapon is called "vishing", as in "Voice Phishing". It relies on Internet telephony to trick users to hand over their private data. Here's how "vishing" works and how you can protect yourself against it.

Revisiting the old-fashioned email phishing

We all know about regular email phishing: hackers send mass email messages announcing an "urgent account problem" with some service provider (usually a well-known bank, ISP or merchant).

Recipients are then asked to visit a particular website to clear up the problem. Of course, those who are not customers of the service in question will ignore the email. But a fraction of recipients will indeed be concerned, and some of these will click on the suggested link to go the service provider's website.

The site may seem legitimate, but it is really a fake. The link in the email was booby-trapped to show a legitimate destination but it actually redirects to a server owned by the hackers. When asked to "confirm" confidential data (usually an account login and password) on the fake site, users are in fact providing the information to the hackers. This account information is immediately stolen and used to commit ID fraud.

Playing phone games
This is regular email phishing. But as consumers get wise to online phishing, thieves are now exploiting new Internet-based phone services:

  • Thieves use email or automated phone messages to notify consumers of "account problems."
  • Recipients are asked to call a toll-free number to resolve the problem.
  • When victims call, they hear what sounds like a legitimate automated phone message.
  • Victims are asked to provide account numbers, passwords or Social Security numbers, which are then sold on the Internet and used to commit identity fraud.

A problem of trust
By seeming to take their victim out of the "web" realm, hackers induce a false sense of security. People trust phone transactions more than they trust the Internet, because the traceability and cost of landline or cellular phone service make mass phone fraud impractical. Moreover, vishing mimics the legitimate ways people interact with their financial institutions - one that has been touted as being safer. After all, many institutions advise calling by phone when in doubt. So victims are more likely to respond without hesitation to a vishing trap.

But VoIP service has brought together the Internet and telephone worlds, and makes such attacks easy and more cost-effective.

  • Internet-based phone companies make it easy to obtain an anonymous account and to handle large call volumes at little cost.
  • Inexpensive software lets thieves create an interactive voice response system that sounds exactly like the one your bank uses—even matching the on-hold music.
  • Traditional anti-phishing tools cannot easily detect a false telephone number within an email text, so protection against vishing is up to the user.

How to protect yourself

Common sense is the only true universal weapon when ID theft is involved!

  • Never respond to an email or voice mail that asks you to go to a website or to call a phone number to resolve an account problem. These are never legitimate.
  • If there is any question, call the merchant or institution at a number you know is genuine - either one found on the regular website (after having entered the address yourself!) or in the Yellow Pages.

Conclusion
There is no need to be alarmed: Vishing is still relatively rare. But it pays to be alert whenever giving out your identity information, no matter what the medium. Never respond to an email or automated phone call that asks you to clear up an urgent problem: if it were urgent, they'd contact you personally and they would be in a position to prove they actually know you.

Monday, February 25, 2008

Live it up ... ;-)

ECGMA says: You know me so well....thanks Jackie!
Click on image to enlarge.

----- Forwarded Message ----
From: Jackie Yip
Sent: Monday, February 25, 2008 7:46:03 PM
Subject: Fw: Live it up ... ;-)

Hey, this is sooooooooo HILARIOUS!!!!!! You're gonna like it, Eugene! Hehehe!

NO MATTER HOW OLD YOU ARE, LIVE LIFE TO THE FULLEST...

'Life's Journey is not to arrive at the grave safely in a

well preserved body, but rather to skid in sideways,

totally worn out, shouting,

'Wow ... What a Ride !!


Yes Minister!

Dear Mr. Minister,

I'm in the process of renewing my passport, and still cannot believe this.

How is it that K-Mart has my address and telephone number, and knows that I bought a Television Set and Golf Clubs from them back in 1997, and yet, the Federal Government is still asking me where I was born and on what date. For Christ sakes, do you guys do this by hand?

My birth date you have in my Medicare information, and it is on all the income tax forms I've filed for the past 40 years. It is on my driver's licence, and on the last eight passports I've ever had, and on all those stupid customs declaration forms I've had to fill out, before being allowed off the planes over the last 30 years, and all those insufferable census forms that I've filled out every 5 years since 1966

Would somebody please take note, once and for all, that my Mother's name is Audrey, my Father's name is Jack, and I'd be absolutely astounded if that ever changed, between now and when I drop dead!!!... SHIT!

I apologize, Mr. Minister. But I'm really pissed off this morning. Between you an' me, I've had enough of this bullshit! You send the application to my house, then you ask me for my F@#&in' address !! What the hell is going on? Have You got a gang of mindless Neanderthal assholes workin' there!

Look at my damn picture. Do I look like Bin Laden? I can't even grow a beard ! For god sakes. I just want to to go to New Zealand and see my new Grand Daughter. (Yes, my son interbred with a Kiwi girl).

And would someone please tell me, why would you give a shit whether I plan on visiting a farm in the next 15 days? If I ever got the urge to do something weird to a sheep or a horse, believe you me, I'd sure as hell not want to tell anyone!

Well, I have to go now, 'cause I have to go to the other end of the city, and get another F@#%in' copy of my birth certificate, to the tune of $80! Would it be so complicated to have all the services in the same spot, to assist in the issuance of a new passport the same day?? Nooooo, that'd be too damn easy and maybe make sense. You'd rather have us running all over the F@#%in' place like chickens with our heads cut off, and then have to find some high society asshole, to confirm that it's really me on the goddamn picture ! You know, the picture where we're not allowed to smile?! ( F@#%'in morons)

Hey, you know why we can't smile? We're totally pissed off!

Signed - An irate F@#%ing Australian Citizen.

P.S. Remember what I said above about the picture, and getting someone in high-society to confirm that it's me? Well, my family has been in this country since before 1850! In 1856, one of my forefathers took up arms with Peter Lalor. (You do remember the Eureka Stockade !!)

I have served in both the CMF and regular Army something over 30 years(I went to Vietnam in 1967), and have had security clearances up the ying-yang.

I'm also a personal friend of the president of the RSL, and Lt General Peter Cosgrove sends me a Christmas card each year.

However, your rules require that I have to get someone 'important' to verify who I am; You know, someone like my doctor; WHO WAS BORN AND RAISED IN F@#%ing PAKISTAN!!!(You know, the country where they either assassinate or hang their ex-Prime Ministers, and are suspended from the Commonwealth for not having the 'right sort of government', I'm done with this, this country is easier to get into, than get out of! I'm staying home and hopefully my son and grand-daughter won't have as much trouble trying to get into here as I'm having trying to get out!

Friday, February 22, 2008

Useless Rambo Statistics


ECGMA says: Thanks to Doug for this 'interesting' facts! Click on the image to enlarge

Charlie Rose - An Exclusive Hour with Warren Buffett and...

An exclusive hour-long conversation about a new partnership in philanthropy with Warren Buffett and Bill and Melinda Gates.

Thursday, February 21, 2008

Declan Galbraith - Tell Me Y - Listen to this Child sing.

ECGMA says: Thanks Jackie! The boy is Declan Galbraith and he has grown up since this clip. Watch, especially the last clip below!

----- Forwarded Message ----
From: Jackie Yip
Sent: Thursday, February 21, 2008 5:34:15 PM
Subject: Fw: Tell Me Y - Listen to this Child sing.
Turn your speakers on and enjoy this gifted boy.

POWERFUL
Watch this child sing.. you can watch more than just the one with the words..


An angel

Tears in Heaven

how could an angel break my heart

Love of my Life

Love of my Life (Second Music Video Version)

Let Us Laugh a Bit ...

ECGMA says: Thank you, Jackie! I enjoyed them!! :).....Ps...Oh! Mary! Mary!

----- Forwarded Message ----
From: Jackie Yip

Sent: Wednesday, February 20, 2008 11:33:27 PM
Subject: Fw: Let Us Laugh a Bit ...

1. There are 3 Male and 1 Female pencils in a box.
The Female pencil got pregnant !!

Which Male pencil is responsible?

THE ONE WITHOUT THE RUBBER.



2. Woman in bed with husband's best friend, and the phone rings !
"YES".... OK,BYE" ... she replied.
She turns to her lover and says, THAT'S MY HUBBY,
HE SAYS HE'S NOW PLAYING GOLF WITH YOU !!?



3. 3 Roosters : normal, retarded and a gay.
Normal : cock-a-doodle-dooo !!!
Retarded : doodle-cock-a-dooo !!!
Gay : any-cock-will dooo !!!



4. 3 Guys were introduced to a pretty girl.....
Hi,.... I'm Peter, not a Saint.

I'm Paul, not a POPE.
I'm John, not a Baptist...

The girl replied.. Hi.. I'm Mary, not a VIRGIN.



5. Girlfriends are appetizers .... Tastes good at any time.
Mistresses are Tomyams ... Hot and spicy. Eaten frequently.
WIVES are Maggi-mee. Eaten when there's nothing to eat.!!!



6. Income Tax office asked a Prostitute why she puts her occupation as 'CHICKEN FARMER'.
She replied: "I RAISED 5,000 COCKS LAST YEAR.!!"



7. Yesterday's News:- A nun jogging at Jogger' Park was raped by 4 guys.
Today's News :- Nearly 100 nuns found jogging at the Park.

'Stay interested in the world, take on a challenge': MM Lee

ECGMA says: Joseph....this was the article you missed. No, you are not blocked. MaryT posted this to ec-general yahoogroups as a WORD document attachment. The copy sent to you by EC-General YG should have the attachment at the bottom of the email post. Anyway, the article in question is presented below or you can visit this link.


This is Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew's advice on ageing the best way one can. Yesterday, he shared some personal insights into how he himself deals with ageing. Here is the transcript of his remarks.

MY CONCERN today is, what is it I can tell you which can add to your knowledge about ageing and what ageing societies can do.
You know more about this subject than I do. A lot of it is out in the media, Internet and books. So I thought the best way would be to take a personal standpoint and tell you how I approach this question of ageing.
If I cast my mind back, I can see turning points in my physical and mental health. You know, when you're young, I didn't bother, I assumed good health was God-given and would always be there. When I was about - '57 that was - I was about 34, we were competing in elections, and I was really fond of drinking beer and smoking.
And after the election campaign, in Victoria Memorial Hall - we had won the election, the City Council election - I couldn't thank the voters because I had lost my voice. I'd been smoking furiously.
I'd take a packet of 10 to deceive myself, but I'd run through the packet just sitting on the stage, watching the crowd, getting the feeling, the mood before I speak. In other words, there were three speeches a night. Three speeches a night, 30 cigarettes, a lot of beer after that, and the voice was gone.
I remember I had a case in Kuching, Sarawak. So I took the flight and I felt awful. I had to make up my mind whether I was going to be an effective campaigner and a lawyer, in which case I cannot destroy my voice, and I can't go on. So I stopped smoking. It was a tremendous deprivation because I was addicted to it. And I used to wake up dreaming...the nightmare was I resumed smoking.
But I made a choice and said, if I continue this, I will not be able to do my job. I didn't know anything about cancer of the throat or oesophagus or the lungs, etc. But it turned out it had many other deleterious effects.
Strangely enough after that, I became very allergic, hyper-allergic to smoking, so much so that I would plead with my Cabinet ministers not to smoke in the Cabinet room. You want to smoke, please go out, because I am allergic.
Then one day I was at the home of my colleague, Mr Rajaratnam, meeting foreign correspondents including some from the London Times and they took a picture of me and I had a big belly like that (puts his hands in front of his belly), a beer belly. I felt no, no, this will not do.
So I started playing more golf, hit hundreds of balls on the practice tee. But this didn't go down. There was only one way it could go down: consume less, burn up more.
Another turning point came when -this was 1976, after the general election - I was feeling tired. I was breathing deeply at the Istana, on the lawns. My daughter, who at that time just graduating as a doctor, said: 'What are you trying to do?' I said: 'I feel an effort to breathe in more oxygen.' She said: 'Don't play golf. Run. Aerobics.'
So she gave me a book, quite a famous book and, then, very current in America on how you score aerobic points swimming, running, whatever it is, cycling. I looked at it sceptically. I wasn't very keen on running. I was keen on golf. So I said, 'Let's try'.
So in-between golf shots while playing on my own, sometimes nine holes at the Istana, I would try and walk fast between shots. Then I began to run between shots. And I felt better. After a while, I said: 'Okay, after my golf, I run.' And after a few years, I said: 'Golf takes so long. The running takes 15 minutes. Let's cut out the golf and let's run.'
I think the most important thing in ageing is you got to understand yourself. And the knowledge now is all there. When I was growing up, the knowledge wasn't there. I had to get the knowledge from friends, from doctors.
But perhaps the most important bit of knowledge that the doctor gave me was one day, when I said: 'Look, I'm feeling slower and sluggish.' So he gave me a medical encyclopaedia and he turned the pages to ageing. I read it up and it was illuminating. A lot of it was difficult jargon but I just skimmed through to get the gist of it.
As you grow, you reach 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and then, thereafter, you are on a gradual slope down physically. Mentally, you carry on and on and on until I don't know what age, but mathematicians will tell you that they know their best output is when they're in their 20s and 30s when your mental energy is powerful and you haven't lost many neurons. That's what they tell me.
So, as you acquire more knowledge, you then craft a programme for yourself to maximise what you have. It's just common sense. I never planned to live till 85 or 84. I just didn't think about it. I said: 'Well, my mother died when she was 74, she had a stroke. My father died when he was 94.'
But I saw him, and he lived a long life, well, maybe it was his DNA. But more than that, he swam every day and he kept himself busy. He was working for the Shell company. He was in charge, he was a superintendent of an oil depot. When he retired, he started becoming a salesman. So people used to tell me: 'Your father is selling watches at BP de Silva.'
My father was then living with me. But it kept him busy. He had that routine: He meets people, he sells watches, he buys and sells all kinds of semi-precious stones, he circulates coins. And he keeps going.
But at 87, 88, he fell, going down the steps from his room to the dining room, broke his arm, three months incapacitated. Thereafter, he couldn't go back to swimming.
Then he became wheelchair-bound. Then it became a problem because my house was constructed that way. So my brother - who's a doctor and had a flat (one-level) house - took him in. And he lived on till 94. But towards the end, he had gradual loss of mental powers.
So my calculations, I'm somewhere between 74 and 94. And I've reached the halfway point now. But have I?
Well, 1996 when I was 73, I was cycling and I felt tightening on the neck. Oh, I must retire today. So I stopped. Next day, I returned to the bicycle. After five minutes it became worse.
So I said, no, no, this is something serious, it's got to do with the blood vessels. Rung up my doctor, who said, 'Come tomorrow'. Went tomorrow, he checked me, and said: 'Come back tomorrow for an angiogram.' I said: 'What's that?' He said: 'We'll pump something in and we'll see whether the coronary arteries are cleared or blocked.'
I was going to go home. But an MP who was a cardiologist happened to be around, so he came in and said: 'What are you doing here?' I said: 'I've got this.' He said: 'Don't go home. You stay here tonight. I've sent patients home and they never came back. Just stay here. They'll put you on the monitor. They'll watch your heart. And if anything, an emergency arises, they will take you straight to the theatre. You go home. You've got no such monitor. You may never come back.'
So I stayed there. Pumped in the dye, yes it was blocked, the left circumflex, not the critical, lead one. So that's lucky for me.
Two weeks later, I was walking around,I felt it's coming back. Yes it has come back, it had occluded. So this time they said: 'We'll put in a stent.'
I'm one of the first few in Singapore to have the stent, so it was a brand new operation. Fortunately, the man who invented the stent was out here selling his stent.
He was from San Jose, La Jolla something or the other. So my doctor got hold of him and he supervised the operation. He said put the stent in. My doctor did the operation, he just watched it all and then that's that. That was before all this problem about lining the stent to make sure that it doesn't occlude and create a disturbance.
So at each stage, I learnt something more about myself and I stored that. I said: 'Oh, this is now a danger point.'
So all right, cut out fats, change diet, went to see a specialist in Boston, Massachusetts General Hospital. He said: 'Take statins.' I said: 'What's that?' He said: '(They) help to reduce your cholesterol.'
My doctors were concerned. They said: 'You don't need it. Your cholesterol levels are okay.' Two years later, more medical evidence came out. So the doctors said: 'Take statins.'
Had there been no angioplasty, had I not known that something was up and I cycled on, I might have gone at 74 like my mother. So I missed that deadline.
So next deadline: my father's fall at 87.
I'm very careful now because sometimes when I turn around too fast, I feel as if I'm going to get off balance. So my daughter, a neurologist, she took me to the NNI, there's this nerve conduction test, put electrodes here and there.
The transmission of the messages between the feet and the brain has slowed down.
So all the exercise, everything, effort put in, I'm fit, I swim, I cycle. But I can't prevent this losing of conductivity of the nerves and this transmission. So just go slow.
So when I climb up the steps, I have no problem. When I go down the steps, I need to be sure that I've got something I can hang on to, just in case. So it's a constant process of adjustment.
But I think the most important single lesson I learnt in life was that if you isolate yourself, you're done for. The human being is a social animal - he needs stimuli, he needs to meet people, to catch up with the world.
I don't much like travel but I travel very frequently despite the jet lag, because I get to meet people of great interest to me, who will help me in my work as chairman of our GIC. So I know, I'm on several boards of banks, international advisory boards of banks, of oil companies and so on.
And I meet them and I get to understand what's happening in the world, what has changed since I was here one month ago, one year ago. I go to India, I go to China.
And that stimuli brings me to the world of today. I'm not living in the world, when I was active, more active 20, 30 years ago. So I tell my wife. She woke up late today. I said: 'Never mind, you come along by 12 o'clock. I go first.'
If you sit back - because part of the ending part of the encyclopaedia which I read was very depressing - as you get old, you withdraw from everything and then all you will have is your bedroom and the photographs and the furniture that you know, and that's your world. So if you've got to go to hospital, the doctor advises you to bring some photographs so that you'll know you're not lost in a different world, that this is like your bedroom.
I'm determined that I will not, as long as I can, to be reduced, to have my horizons closed on me like that. It is the stimuli, it is the constant interaction with people across the world that keeps me aware and alive to what's going on and what we can do to adjust to this different world.
In other words, you must have an interest in life. If you believe that at 55, you're retiring, you're going to read books, play golf and drink wine, then I think you're done for. So statistically they will show you that all the people who retire and lead sedentary lives, the pensioners die off very quickly.
So we now have a social problem with medical sciences, new procedures, new drugs, many more people are going to live long lives. If the mindset is that when I reach retirement age 62, I'm old, I can't work anymore, I don't have to work, I just sit back, now is the time I'll enjoy life, I think you're making the biggest mistake of your life.
After one month, or after two months, even if you go travelling with nothing to do, with no purpose in life, you will just degrade, you'll go to seed.
The human being needs a challenge, and my advice to every person in Singapore and elsewhere: Keep yourself interested, have a challenge.
If you're not interested in the world and the world is not interested in you, the biggest punishment a man can receive is total isolation in a dungeon, black and complete withdrawal of all stimuli, that's real torture.
So when I read that people believe, Singaporeans say: 'Oh, 62 I'm retiring.' I say to them: 'You really want to die quickly?' If you want to see sunrise tomorrow or sunset, you must have a reason, you must have the stimuli to keep going.'
This story was first published on Jan 12, 2008.
[quote=GIGVFJ;94444
Huh,,, now the 2 pcs ginseng he sucks every talks,,,is sufficent to wake-up calls for those not fortunate ones:mad: :mad: :mad:[/QUOTE]
:D

Stand aside ginseng
Suspect going into stem cells implant for imortality soon
Darn lucky, all soughts of medical miracle invention, likely give him extra 10 more years.... :(

Posted by: Wondering888 at Sun Jan 20 02:01:55 SGT 2008

The Way I See It:
I don't like this Sillyporean's challenge thingy.
If I challenge you, you sue me.
If you challenge me, I have no money to sue you. :D

Posted by: ILostMyBall at Sat Jan 19 21:06:22 SGT 2008

fortunately I only have 'one wakeup call'
my only life saving CPF money built from my sweat and blood for my retirement got robbed by my own leaders to pay their millions salary
now I am a broke old poor retiree Singaporean........ bloody hell...
how to stay interested in this life in Singapore to take on a challenge?

Posted by: wibi91 at Sat Jan 19 17:38:05 SGT 2008

Wednesday, February 20, 2008

Japanese Style Magic!!!

ECGMA says: Thanks Jackie! Astonishing!

----- Forwarded Message ----
From: Jackie Yip
Sent: Wednesday, February 20, 2008 2:11:53 PM
Subject: Fw: Japanese Style Magic!!!

Another David Copperfield wannabe? Check this out..........

Can u Believe It Or Not, Japanese Style magic ! You don't need to understand the language; just watch the video.
click the link below


Biography of General Eva Burrows



General Eva Burrows (read her words of wisdom)
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Eva Burrows was born in Australia, the daughter of Salvation Army officer parents. She committed her life to God for service as a Salvation Army officer while studying at the Queensland University in Australia and, having gained a Bachelor of Arts degree, entered the William Booth Memorial Training College in London. She was commissioned a Salvation Army officer in 1951. She took a course at London University to obtain the Post Graduate Certificate in Education.

As a young salvationist Eva Burrows had sensed a compelling call to work in Africa, and on her commissioning she was appointed as an officer teacher to the Howard Institute, a large mission station in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). At this centre there was a varied expression of service through schools and a teachers' college, a hospital and a theological training college for Salvation Army officers.

During fourteen years at Howard Institute, Eva Burrows became particularly concerned with the training of black teachers for the network of Salvation Army schools throughout Zimbabwe. During her first homeland leave she undertook a course at Sydney University for the degree of Master of Education, and presented her thesis on the training of African teachers from Zimbabwe. She subsequently became a consultant to the educational department on the development of school curricula.

Eva Burrows was given leadership responsibility as Head of the Teachers' College and then Vice-Principal of the Howard Institute before being appointed as Principal of the Usher Institute, an educational establishment for girls. At this centre, The Salvation Army initiated the first Domestic Science Teacher Training College for African girls. Under her innovative leadership, Usher Institute became well known in Zimbabwe as an outstanding girls' educational centre.

In 1970 Eva Burrows was appointed to London where she spent five years at the International College for Officers, first as Vice-Principal and then Principal. In each of the four refresher courses held annually, a group of 24 Salvation Army officers, representing as many as 20 countries, studied a range of subjects relating to the programme and purpose of The Salvation Army in today's world.

A significant impact on Eva Burrows' life was her appointment, in 1975, as the Leader of the Women's Social Services in Great Britain and Ireland; an impact out of all proportion to the time she spent on this task. 'All too brief', she has said; but it gave her a sensitivity to the lost and lonely, the disadvantaged and deprived of the great crowded cities of Britain.

In January 1977 there began a period of 10 years of territorial command which culminated in her election as the General of The Salvation Army in 1986. A territorial commander is both the spiritual and administrative leader of The Salvation Army's forces. Her first command was Sri Lanka where she immersed herself in the life and needs of the Asian people, introducing new schemes and programmes. At the time of her departure, an editorial in 'The Ceylon Observer' commented 'We say without fear of contradiction, that people like Eva Burrows grace any country they serve in.

Her next command was in Scotland for a further three years of inspirational leadership prior to taking command, in 1982, of the Australia Southern Territory. There, significant and innovative initiatives characterized her leadership style over the next four years, examples being the establishment of 'Employment 2000', an imaginative programme for unemployed youth, and the introduction of the Church Growth principles and concepts which laid the foundation for future growth in Australia.

On May 2nd 1986 the High Council elected Eva Burrows to become General and world leader of The Salvation Army. She succeeded General Jarl Wahlstrom in office on July 9th 1986. As General, Eva Burrows commands the worldwide forces of The Salvation Army, giving spiritual and administrative oversight and direction to the movement. As General, she is the focus and symbol of unity, and her varied international experience eminently equips her for this role. She is the 13th General, and only the second woman to hold this responsibility.

Under the Army's constitution, General Burrows' five year period in office should have ended in July 1991. However, at the overwhelming request of the movement's senior international leadership, General Burrows agreed to serve an additional two years. Her period of office therefore ended when she entered retirement in July 1993.

During her first five years as General, Eva Burrows visited 62 countries, and was translated into 41 languages. These overseas campaigns were not only a source of inspiration to salvationists throughout the world but have enabled the General to make contact with people at all levels of society, from hostel residents to heads of state and government. The General used her meetings with such people as Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, Presidents of the USA and President Vaclav Havel of Czechoslovakia to speak of the Army's continuing mission and pledge its resources to meeting human need wherever it is found.

In 1990, the General convened and presided over an International Congress which brought to London salvationists from every continent, for 10 inspiring days of celebration and discussion. She also initiated and sanctioned a far-reaching reorganization of the administration of the movement, both internationally and in the United Kingdom.

Perhaps most significantly of all, General Burrows led The Salvation Army back into Eastern Europe, with work being re-established in the former East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Russia itself.

General Burrows has been honored in many ways during her worldwide travel, not least by the receipt of a number of honorary degrees. However, such has been her willingness to spend time with individuals whatever their status that General Eva Burrows has become known to many as 'the people's General' - a title she did not seek, but which she cherishes. In December 1993, she received an honorary Doctor of Philosophy from her alma mater, the University of Queensland.

She retired as the world leader of The Salvation Army in July, 1993 to live in Melbourne, Australia. She has many invitations to speak locally, throughout Australia and around the world which she enjoys fulfilling. Released from the responsibilities of administering the worldwide Salvation Army, she has a very full schedule of appearances, lecturing, board meetings and more personal pursuits such as symphony concerts and study planned for the coming years.

In the Australia Day Honours List 1994, she was appointed a Companion of the Order of Australia.

Women's Rights

ECGMA says: The biggest mistake any fool can do is to judge me on the premise of presumption. On the subject of feminism and/or women's rights, I have no issues with the movement for the right causes in equality of RIGHTS but many seemed to want to match wit, intelligence, physical strength, power etc into the equation then I feel it's going the wrong direction and down the tube because in fairness, we can argue until the cows come home who is better BUT on the 'fight' for equal rights, I am 100% behind the movement for the right reasons. So, I like to share (again) an article I read with you all. If you are interested as I was, read otherwise ignore this.

Women's History in America - Presented by Women's International Center

WOMEN'S RIGHTS. Throughout most of history women generally have had fewer legal rights and career opportunities than men. Wifehood and motherhood were regarded as women's most significant professions. In the 20th century, however, women in most nations won the right to vote and increased their educational and job opportunities. Perhaps most important, they fought for and to a large degree accomplished a reevaluation of traditional views of their role in society.

Early Attitudes Toward Women
Since early times women have been uniquely viewed as a creative source of human life. Historically, however, they have been considered not only intellectually inferior to men but also a major source of temptation and evil. In Greek mythology, for example, it was a woman, Pandora, who opened the forbidden box and brought plagues and unhappiness to mankind. Early Roman law described women as children, forever inferior to men.

Early Christian theology perpetuated these views. St. Jerome, a 4th-century Latin father of the Christian church, said: "Woman is the gate of the devil, the path of wickedness, the sting of the serpent, in a word a perilous object." Thomas Aquinas, the 13th-century Christian theologian, said that woman was "created to be man's helpmeet, but her unique role is in conception . . . since for other purposes men would be better assisted by other men."

The attitude toward women in the East was at first more favorable. In ancient India, for example, women were not deprived of property rights or individual freedoms by marriage. But Hinduism, which evolved in India after about 500 BC, required obedience of women toward men. Women had to walk behind their husbands. Women could not own property, and widows could not remarry. In both East and West, male children were preferred over female children.

Nevertheless, when they were allowed personal and intellectual freedom, women made significant achievements. During the Middle Ages nuns played a key role in the religious life of Europe. Aristocratic women enjoyed power and prestige. Whole eras were influenced by women rulers for instance, Queen Elizabeth of England in the 16th century, Catherine the Great of Russia in the 18th century, and Queen Victoria of England in the 19th century.

The Weaker Sex?
Women were long considered naturally weaker than men, squeamish, and unable to perform work requiring muscular or intellectual development. In most preindustrial societies, for example, domestic chores were relegated to women, leaving "heavier" labor such as hunting and plowing to men. This ignored the fact that caring for children and doing such tasks as milking cows and washing clothes also required heavy, sustained labor. But physiological tests now suggest that women have a greater tolerance for pain, and statistics reveal that women live longer and are more resistant to many diseases.

Maternity, the natural biological role of women, has traditionally been regarded as their major social role as well. The resulting stereotype that "a woman's place is in the home" has largely determined the ways in which women have expressed themselves. Today, contraception and, in some areas, legalized abortion have given women greater control over the number of children they will bear. Although these developments have freed women for roles other than motherhood, the cultural pressure for women to become wives and mothers still prevents many talented women from finishing college or pursuing careers.

Traditionally a middle-class girl in Western culture tended to learn from her mother's example that cooking, cleaning, and caring for children was the behavior expected of her when she grew up. Tests made in the 1960s showed that the scholastic achievement of girls was higher in the early grades than in high school. The major reason given was that the girls' own expectations declined because neither their families nor their teachers expected them to prepare for a future other than that of marriage and motherhood. This trend has been changing in recent decades.

Formal education for girls historically has been secondary to that for boys. In colonial America girls learned to read and write at dame schools. They could attend the master's schools for boys when there was room, usually during the summer when most of the boys were working. By the end of the 19th century, however, the number of women students had increased greatly. Higher education particularly was broadened by the rise of women's colleges and the admission of women to regular colleges and universities. In 1870 an estimated one fifth of resident college and university students were women. By 1900 the proportion had increased to more than one third.

Women obtained 19 percent of all undergraduate college degrees around the beginning of the 20th century. By 1984 the figure had sharply increased to 49 percent. Women also increased their numbers in graduate study. By the mid-1980s women were earning 49 percent of all master's degrees and about 33 percent of all doctoral degrees. In 1985 about 53 percent of all college students were women, more than one quarter of whom were above age 29.

The Legal Status of Women
The myth of the natural inferiority of women greatly influenced the status of women in law. Under the common law of England, an unmarried woman could own property, make a contract, or sue and be sued. But a married woman, defined as being one with her husband, gave up her name, and virtually all her property came under her husband's control.

During the early history of the United States, a man virtually owned his wife and children as he did his material possessions. If a poor man chose to send his children to the poorhouse, the mother was legally defenseless to object. Some communities, however, modified the common law to allow women to act as lawyers in the courts, to sue for property, and to own property in their own names if their husbands agreed.

Equity law, which developed in England, emphasized the principle of equal rights rather than tradition. Equity law had a liberalizing effect upon the legal rights of women in the United States. For instance, a woman could sue her husband. Mississippi in 1839, followed by New York in 1848 and Massachusetts in 1854, passed laws allowing married women to own property separate from their husbands. In divorce law, however, generally the divorced husband kept legal control of both children and property.

In the 19th century, women began working outside their homes in large numbers, notably in textile mills and garment shops. In poorly ventilated, crowded rooms women (and children) worked for as long as 12 hours a day. Great Britain passed a ten-hour-day law for women and children in 1847, but in the United States it was not until the 1910s that the states began to pass legislation limiting working hours and improving working conditions of women and children.

Eventually, however, some of these labor laws were seen as restricting the rights of working women. For instance, laws prohibiting women from working more than an eight-hour day or from working at night effectively prevented women from holding many jobs, particularly supervisory positions, that might require overtime work. Laws in some states prohibited women from lifting weights above a certain amount varying from as little as 15 pounds (7 kilograms) again barring women from many jobs.

During the 1960s several federal laws improving the economic status of women were passed. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 required equal wages for men and women doing equal work. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination against women by any company with 25 or more employees. A Presidential Executive Order in 1967 prohibited bias against women in hiring by federal government contractors.

But discrimination in other fields persisted. Many retail stores would not issue independent credit cards to married women. Divorced or single women often found it difficult to obtain credit to purchase a house or a car. Laws concerned with welfare, crime, prostitution, and abortion also displayed a bias against women. In possible violation of a woman's right to privacy, for example, a mother receiving government welfare payments was subject to frequent investigations in order to verify her welfare claim. Sex discrimination in the definition of crimes existed in some areas of the United States. A woman who shot and killed her husband would be accused of homicide, but the shooting of a wife by her husband could be termed a "passion shooting." Only in 1968, for another example, did the Pennsylvania courts void a state law which required that any woman convicted of a felony be sentenced to the maximum punishment prescribed by law. Often women prostitutes were prosecuted although their male customers were allowed to go free. In most states abortion was legal only if the mother's life was judged to be physically endangered. In 1973, however, the United States Supreme Court ruled that states could not restrict a woman's right to an abortion in her first three months of pregnancy.

Until well into the 20th century, women in Western European countries lived under many of the same legal disabilities as women in the United States. For example, until 1935, married women in England did not have the full right to own property and to enter into contracts on a par with unmarried women. Only after 1920 was legislation passed to provide working women with employment opportunities and pay equal to men. Not until the early 1960s was a law passed that equalized pay scales for men and women in the British civil service.

Women at Work
In colonial America, women who earned their own living usually became seamstresses or kept boardinghouses. But some women worked in professions and jobs available mostly to men. There were women doctors, lawyers, preachers, teachers, writers, and singers. By the early 19th century, however, acceptable occupations for working women were limited to factory labor or domestic work. Women were excluded from the professions, except for writing and teaching.

The medical profession is an example of changed attitudes in the 19th and 20th centuries about what was regarded as suitable work for women. Prior to the 1800s there were almost no medical schools, and virtually any enterprising person could practice medicine. Indeed, obstetrics was the domain of women.

Beginning in the 19th century, the required educational preparation, particularly for the practice of medicine, increased. This tended to prevent many young women, who married early and bore many children, from entering professional careers. Although home nursing was considered a proper female occupation, nursing in hospitals was done almost exclusively by men. Specific discrimination against women also began to appear. For example, the American Medical Association, founded in 1846, barred women from membership. Barred also from attending "men's" medical colleges, women enrolled in their own for instance, the Female Medical College of Pennsylvania, which was established in 1850. By the 1910s, however, women were attending many leading medical schools, and in 1915 the American Medical Association began to admit women members.

In 1890, women constituted about 5 percent of the total doctors in the United States. During the 1980s the proportion was about 17 percent. At the same time the percentage of women doctors was about 19 percent in West Germany and 20 percent in France. In Israel, however, about 32 percent of the total number of doctors and dentists were women.

Women also had not greatly improved their status in other professions. In 1930 about 2 percent of all American lawyers and judges were women in 1989, about 22 percent. In 1930 there were almost no women engineers in the United States. In 1989 the proportion of women engineers was only 7.5 percent.

In contrast, the teaching profession was a large field of employment for women. In the late 1980s more than twice as many women as men taught in elementary and high schools. In higher education, however, women held only about one third of the teaching positions, concentrated in such fields as education, social service, home economics, nursing, and library science. A small proportion of women college and university teachers were in the physical sciences, engineering, agriculture, and law.

The great majority of women who work are still employed in clerical positions, factory work, retail sales, and service jobs. Secretaries, bookkeepers, and typists account for a large portion of women clerical workers. Women in factories often work as machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors. Many women in service jobs work as waitresses, cooks, hospital attendants, cleaning women, and hairdressers.

During wartime women have served in the armed forces. In the United States during World War II almost 300,000 women served in the Army and Navy, performing such noncombatant jobs as secretaries, typists, and nurses. Many European women fought in the underground resistance movements during World War II. In Israel women are drafted into the armed forces along with men and receive combat training.

Women constituted more than 45 percent of employed persons in the United States in 1989, but they had only a small share of the decision-making jobs. Although the number of women working as managers, officials, and other administrators has been increasing, in 1989 they were outnumbered about 1.5 to 1 by men. Despite the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women in 1970 were paid about 45 percent less than men for the same jobs; in 1988, about 32 percent less. Professional women did not get the important assignments and promotions given to their male colleagues. Many cases before the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 1970 were registered by women charging sex discrimination in jobs.

Working women often faced discrimination on the mistaken belief that, because they were married or would most likely get married, they would not be permanent workers. But married women generally continued on their jobs for many years and were not a transient, temporary, or undependable work force. From 1960 to the early 1970s the influx of married women workers accounted for almost half of the increase in the total labor force, and working wives were staying on their jobs longer before starting families. The number of elderly working also increased markedly.

Since 1960 more and more women with children have been in the work force. This change is especially dramatic for married women with children under age 6: 12 percent worked in 1950, 45 percent in 1980, and 57 percent in 1987. Just over half the mothers with children under age 3 were in the labor force in 1987. Black women with children are more likely to work than are white or Hispanic women who have children. Over half of all black families with children are maintained by the mother only, compared with 18 percent of white families with children.

Despite their increased presence in the work force, most women still have primary responsibility for housework and family care. In the late 1970s men with an employed wife spent only about 1.4 hours a week more on household tasks than those whose wife was a full-time homemaker.

A crucial issue for many women is maternity leave, or time off from their jobs after giving birth. By federal law a full-time worker is entitled to time off and a job when she returns, but few states by the early 1990s required that the leave be paid. Many countries, including Mexico, India, Germany, Brazil, and Australia require companies to grant 12-week maternity leaves at full pay.

Women in Politics
American women have had the right to vote since 1920, but their political roles have been minimal. Not until 1984 did a major party choose a woman Geraldine Ferraro of New York to run for vice-president (see Ferraro).

Jeanette Rankin of Montana, elected in 1917, was the first woman member of the United States House of Representatives. In 1968 Shirley Chisholm of New York was the first black woman elected to the House of Representatives (see Chisholm). Hattie Caraway of Arkansas first appointed in 1932 was, in 1933, the first woman elected to the United States Senate. Senator Margaret Chase Smith served Maine for 24 years (1949-73). Others were Maurine Neuberger of Oregon, Nancy Landon Kassebaum of Kansas, Paula Hawkins of Florida, and Barbara Mikulski of Maryland.

Wives of former governors became the first women governors Miriam A. Ferguson of Texas (1925-27 and 1933-35) and Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming (1925-27) (see Ross, Nellie Tayloe). In 1974 Ella T. Grasso of Connecticut won a governorship on her own merits.

In 1971 Patience Sewell Latting was elected mayor of Oklahoma City, at that time the largest city in the nation with a woman mayor. By 1979 two major cities were headed by women: Chicago, by Jane Byrne, and San Francisco, by Dianne Feinstein. Sharon Pratt Dixon was elected mayor of Washington, D.C., in 1990.

Frances Perkins was the first woman Cabinet member as secretary of labor under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Oveta Culp Hobby was secretary of health, education, and welfare in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Cabinet. Carla A. Hills was secretary of housing and urban development in Gerald R. Ford's Cabinet. Jimmy Carter chose two women for his original Cabinet Juanita M. Kreps as secretary of commerce and Patricia Roberts Harris as secretary of housing and urban development. Harris was the first African American woman in a presidential Cabinet. When the separate Department of Education was created, Carter named Shirley Mount Hufstedler to head it. Ronald Reagan's Cabinet included Margaret Heckler, secretary of health and human services, and Elizabeth Dole, secretary of transportation. Under George Bush, Dole became secretary of labor; she was succeeded by Representative Lynn Martin. Bush chose Antonia Novello, a Hispanic, for surgeon general in 1990.

Reagan set a precedent with his appointment in 1981 of Sandra Day O'Connor as the first woman on the United States Supreme Court (see O'Connor). The next year Bertha Wilson was named to the Canadian Supreme Court. In 1984 Jeanne Sauve became Canada's first female governor-general (see Sauve).

In international affairs, Eleanor Roosevelt was appointed to the United Nations in 1945 and served as chairman of its Commission on Human Rights (see Roosevelt, Eleanor). Eugenie Anderson was sent to Denmark in 1949 as the first woman ambassador from the United States. Jeane Kirkpatrick was named ambassador to the United Nations in 1981.

Three women held their countries' highest elective offices by 1970. Sirimavo Bandaranaike was prime minister of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) from 1960 to 1965 and from 1970 to 1977 (see Bandaranaike). Indira Gandhi was prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977 and from 1980 until her assassination in 1984 (see Gandhi, Indira). Golda Meir was prime minister of Israel from 1969 to 1974 (see Meir). The first woman head of state in the Americas was Juan Peron's widow, Isabel, president of Argentina in 1974-76 (see Peron). Elisabeth Domitien was premier of the Central African Republic in 1975-76. Margaret Thatcher, who first became prime minister of Great Britain in 1979, was the only person in the 20th century to be reelected to that office for a third consecutive term (see Thatcher). Also in 1979, Simone Weil of France became the first president of the European Parliament.

In the early 1980s Vigdis Finnbogadottir was elected president of Iceland; Gro Harlem Brundtland, prime minister of Norway; and Milka Planinc, premier of Yugoslavia. In 1986 Corazon Aquino became president of the Philippines (see Aquino). From 1988 to 1990 Benazir Bhutto was prime minister of Pakistan the first woman to head a Muslim nation (see Bhutto).

In 1990 Mary Robinson was elected president of Ireland and Violeta Chamorro, of Nicaragua. Australia's first female premier was Carmen Lawrence of Western Australia (1990), and Canada's was Rita Johnston of British Columbia (1991). In 1991 Khaleda Zia became the prime minister of Bangladesh and Socialist Edith Cresson was named France's first female premier. Poland's first female prime minister, Hanna Suchocka, was elected in 1992.

Feminist Philosophies
At the end of the 18th century, individual liberty was being hotly debated. In 1789, during the French Revolution, Olympe de Gouges published a 'Declaration of the Rights of Woman' to protest the revolutionists' failure to mention women in their 'Declaration of the Rights of Man'. In 'A Vindication of the Rights of Women' (1792) Mary Wollstonecraft called for enlightenment of the female mind.

Margaret Fuller, one of the earliest female reporters, wrote 'Woman in the Nineteenth Century' in 1845. She argued that individuals had unlimited capacities and that when people's roles were defined according to their sex, human development was severely limited.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton was a leading theoretician of the women's rights movement. Her 'Woman's Bible', published in parts in 1895 and 1898, attacked what she called the male bias of the Bible. Contrary to most of her religious female colleagues, she believed further that organized religion would have to be abolished before true emancipation for women could be achieved. (See also Stanton, Elizabeth Cady.)

Charlotte Perkins Gilman characterized the home as inefficient compared with the mass-production techniques of the modern factory. She contended, in books like 'Women and Economics' (1898), that women should share the tasks of homemaking, with the women best suited to cook, to clean, and to care for young children doing each respective task.

Politically, many feminists believed that a cooperative society based on socialist economic principles would respect the rights of women. The Socialist Labor party, in 1892, was one of the first national political parties in the United States to include woman suffrage as a plank in its platform.

During the early 20th century the term new woman came to be used in the popular press. More young women than ever were going to school, working both in blue- and white-collar jobs, and living by themselves in city apartments. Some social critics feared that feminism, which they interpreted to mean the end of the home and family, was triumphing. Actually, the customary habits of American women were changing little. Although young people dated more than their parents did and used the automobile to escape parental supervision, most young women still married and became the traditional housewives and mothers.

Women in Reform Movements
Women in the United States during the 19th century organized and participated in a great variety of reform movements to improve education, to initiate prison reform, to ban alcoholic drinks, and, during the pre-Civil War period, to free the slaves.

At a time when it was not considered respectable for women to speak before mixed audiences of men and women, the abolitionist sisters Sarah and Angelina Grimke of South Carolina boldly spoke out against slavery at public meetings (see Grimke Sisters). Some male abolitionists including William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, and Frederick Douglass supported the right of women to speak and participate equally with men in antislavery activities. In one instance, women delegates to the World's Anti-Slavery Convention held in London in 1840 were denied their places. Garrison thereupon refused his own seat and joined the women in the balcony as a spectator.

Some women saw parallels between the position of women and that of the slaves. In their view, both were expected to be passive, cooperative, and obedient to their master-husbands. Women such as Stanton, Lucy Stone, Lucretia Mott, Harriet Tubman, and Sojourner Truth were feminists and abolitionists, believing in both the rights of women and the rights of blacks. (See also individual biographies.)

Many women supported the temperance movement in the belief that drunken husbands pulled their families into poverty. In 1872 the Prohibition party became the first national political party to recognize the right of suffrage for women in its platform. Frances Willard helped found the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (see Willard, Frances).

During the mid-1800s Dorothea Dix was a leader in the movements for prison reform and for providing mental-hospital care for the needy. The settlement-house movement was inspired by Jane Addams, who founded Hull House in Chicago in 1889, and by Lillian Wald, who founded the Henry Street Settlement House in New York City in 1895. Both women helped immigrants adjust to city life. (See also Addams; Dix.)

Women were also active in movements for agrarian and labor reforms and for birth control. Mary Elizabeth Lease, a leading Populist spokeswoman in the 1880s and 1890s in Kansas, immortalized the cry, "What the farmers need to do is raise less corn and more hell." Margaret Robins led the National Women's Trade Union League in the early 1900s. In the 1910s Margaret Sanger crusaded to have birth-control information available for all women (see Sanger).

Fighting for the Vote
The first women's rights convention took place in Seneca Falls, N.Y., in July 1848. The declaration that emerged was modeled after the Declaration of Independence. Written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, it claimed that "all men and women are created equal" and that "the history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman." Following a long list of grievances were resolutions for equitable laws, equal educational and job opportunities, and the right to vote.

With the Union victory in the Civil War, women abolitionists hoped their hard work would result in suffrage for women as well as for blacks. But the 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, adopted in 1868 and 1870 respectively, granted citizenship and suffrage to blacks but not to women.

Disagreement over the next steps to take led to a split in the women's rights movement in 1869. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, a temperance and antislavery advocate, formed the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) in New York. Lucy Stone organized the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) in Boston. The NWSA agitated for a woman-suffrage amendment to the Federal Constitution, while the AWSA worked for suffrage amendments to each state constitution. Eventually, in 1890, the two groups united as the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Lucy Stone became chairman of the executive committee and Elizabeth Cady Stanton served as the first president. Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Dr. Anna Howard Shaw served as later presidents.

The struggle to win the vote was slow and frustrating. Wyoming Territory in 1869, Utah Territory in 1870, and the states of Colorado in 1893 and Idaho in 1896 granted women the vote but the Eastern states resisted. A woman-suffrage amendment to the Federal Constitution, presented to every Congress since 1878, repeatedly failed to pass.

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Excerpted from Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia

Queen Victoria's quote - March- 1870 (Reference Woman's Rights Movement)

ECGMA says: Wow! I came across this quote by Queen Victoria on feminism -
Queen Victoria sums it up nicely and before a feminist goes accusing me of making this up, better put that finger-pointing away from my face. I include the link.
Let me say that "hear! hear!" is more appropriate here. Now, hear this...what I am about to say is not directed to any of the members in this group, so don't bother looking for your shotguns. I have met some in my lifetime who became what QV quoted without having to be 'unsexed'.... hateful, heathen & disgusting beings (and equal in numbers, males too). Not too sure about the 'good whipping', some of these people may actually enjoy the punishment! Masochists! Kinky!
Ps..Talking about male protection, I think Maggie Lee did touch on this subject about her husband's willingness (out of love and honour) to protect her if there was an altercation/threat from an assailant.


March- 1870(Reference Woman's Rights Movement)
" I am most anxious to enlist everyone who can speak or write to join in checking this mad, wicked folly of 'Women's Rights', with all its attendant horrors, on which her poor feeble sex is bent, forgetting every sense of womanly feelings and propriety. Feminists ought to get a good whipping. Were woman to 'unsex' themselves by claiming equality with men, they would become the most hateful, heathen and disgusting of beings and would surely perish without male protection."
- Queen Victoria

The Problem with Women....is Men

ECGMA says: "I am woman, hear me roar!......", Oh! Don't tell me you don't know the feminist song by Helen Reddy.....well, whatever...to all passionate strong women around the world, I like to share this author's (Charles Orlando) writings. What?!?! Never heard of him? Well, research as I do, read as I do then maybe then you can learn to broaden your minds, your mentality, your outlook, your judgement, your perceptions and more importantly contain your sensitivity, personal or otherwise. Anyway, here read this, may just soothe some insensitivities. No doubt some would have got their blood pressure up when they read the subject heading. Make sure you go for confession this weekend. So, before anyone is offended (again) based on personal assumptions, pls read first...then shoot. Remember the 'we/us' and not the 'I/me/you' self-centredness.

The Problem with Women... is Men - The Evolution of a Man's Man to a Man of Higher Consciousness

“So… what’s this about, anyway?”

Understanding Computer Viruses and Spyware

Tags: Software, Antivirus Software, Spyware, Computer, Cyberthreats, Productivity, Viruses And Worms, Security, Internet, Trojan Horse, Computer Virus, Virus, BNET Editorial

Computer viruses are a growing threat on the Internet. They cost organizations hundreds of millions of dollars every year. In 2007, there are thousands of viruses that can affect— even cripple—your computer. If current security updates are not installed on a computer, it's possible to get a virus just by visiting a Web site or opening an e-mail. To combat viruses, insure that you have the latest antivirus software, that you scan your entire computer regularly, and that you have the latest software security updates (often called "patches") for your computer; immediately delete e-mails that are in any way suspicious; don't download anything from the Internet except from reputable Web sites; and back up your data regularly.

What to Do

Understand What Can Attack a Computer

There are three main threats to your computer:

  • In its simplest form, a virus attaches itself to a computer's files and then tries to replicate itself. Viruses can affect files ranging from program and system files to Word(r) documents and HTML files. Viruses spread with extraordinary speed via the Internet, usually by sending e-mail to all the contacts in the infected computer's address book.
  • A Trojan horse seems to serve a useful function, such as a screen saver; however, as soon as it is run, it achieves its true purpose—anything from erasing the hard disk of the computer to using the computer as a host to infect other computers. Never download software from the Internet unless you are sure of its source and authenticity.
  • Spyware is virus software that takes partial control of a computer to benefit a third party without the computer owner's informed consent. For example, your Internet browsing habits might be relayed to a third party, and this information would be used to target pop-up ads to you. Spyware is often bundled with otherwise useful applications so that the user does not understand the full implications of installing it. Again, never download software from the Internet unless you know it is authentic.

Take Preventative Measures

Viruses can be extremely difficult to remove; they may have inserted hidden code in your operating system that is almost impossible to detect. It is essential to prevent viruses from getting into your computer in the first place. Preventative actions you can take include the following.

  • Install the latest antivirus software; popular antivirus software includes McAfee and Norton products.
  • Join an e-mail list that will inform you of new virus attacks; as soon as you hear of them, check your vendor for the latest antivirus updates.
  • Scan your entire computer for viruses at least once a week.
  • Make sure that you have the latest security patches for your computer software; it is vital to implement software patches as soon as they become available, because viruses are most potent in the first hours and days after their release.
  • If you use Microsoft Windows(r) software, check www.microsoft.com/security regularly for news and updates.
  • Download software only from reputable Web sites.
  • Delete e-mails (without opening them) that you are suspicious of in any way.

Know What to Do If a Virus Attacks

Deal with the threat immediately. Never wait; the longer the virus is on your computer the more damage it can do. Some viruses make your computer vulnerable to potential hacking. Even after the virus has been deleted, your system may contain some malicious code that will be used at a future date. To be completely safe after a virus has been identified in your computer system, you should reformat your hard disk and reinstall all your software.

Cope with Hoaxes

The Internet is full of virus hoaxes that waste time. If you get an e-mail about a new virus, check the Web site of your antivirus software provider to find out if the warning is real. Judge a hoax by asking the following questions:

  • Does the message come from a reputable source?
  • Does it ask you to e-mail it to anyone you know? If it does, it's probably a hoax.
  • Does it have a reputable link for more information?

Where to Learn More

Book:

Dwight, Ken. Bug-Free Computing: Stop Viruses, Squash Worms, and Smash Trojan Horses. Teleprocessors. 2006.

Web Sites:

McAfee Antivirus Software: www.mcafee.com

Microsoft anti-Spyware software: www.microsoft.com/athome/security/spyware/software/default.mspx

Symantec/Norton Antivirus Software: http://shop.symantecstore.com